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[Tkinter Gui 教程13] Mastermind 游戏

2019年12月20日 11:31 汪洋大海 暂无评论 阅读 49 views 次

已获原作者授权. 原系列地址: Python Tkinter

Mastermind 游戏

本章我们演示一个进阶例子. 我们用 Tkinter 编写了 "Bulls and Cows" 游戏. 这个游戏也被称作 "Cows and Bulls" 或者 "Pigs and Bulls" 或者 "Bulls and Cleots", 是一个古老的益智解谜游戏, 由两名玩家参与. 早在19世纪, 人们就在用铅笔和纸来玩这个游戏了. Mordecai Meirowitz 在 1970 年发明的 Mastermind 游戏正是受到这个游戏的启发. Mastermind 和 Bulls and Cows 在基本理念上是一样的, 但 Mastermind 被盒装出售, 其中还包含了一个解谜棋盘和一些标记解谜和反馈的标签. Mastermind 使用颜色作为谜题信息, 而 Bulls and Cows 则是用数字做谜题信息.
这个游戏的算法在我们的 Python 进阶教程中的 "Mastermind / Bulls and Cows" 一文内有详细阐释.

实现代码

from tkinter import *
from tkinter.messagebox import *
import random

from combinatorics import all_colours

def inconsistent(p, guesses):
   """ the function checks, if a permutation p, i.e. a list of 
colours like p = ['pink', 'yellow', 'green', 'red'] is consistent
with the previous colours. Each previous colour permuation guess[0]
compared (check()) with p has to return the same amount of blacks 
(rightly positioned colours) and whites (right colour at wrong 
position) as the corresponding evaluation (guess[1] in the 
list guesses) """
   for guess in guesses:
      res = check(guess[0], p)
      (rightly_positioned, permutated) = guess[1]
      if res != [rightly_positioned, permutated]:
         return True # inconsistent
   return False # i.e. consistent

def answer_ok(a):
   """ checking of an evaulation given by the human player makes 
sense. 3 blacks and 1 white make no sense for example. """
   (rightly_positioned, permutated) = a
   if (rightly_positioned + permutated > number_of_positions) \
       or (rightly_positioned + permutated < len(colours) - number_of_positions):
      return False
   if rightly_positioned == 3 and permutated == 1:
      return False
   return True

def get_evaluation():
   """ get evaluation from entry fields """
   rightly_positioned = int(entryWidget_both.get())
   permutated = int(entryWidget_only_colours.get())
   return (rightly_positioned, permutated)

def new_evaluation(current_colour_choices):
   """ This funtion gets an evaluation of the current guess, checks 
the consistency of this evaluation, adds the guess together with
the evaluation to the list of guesses, shows the previous guesses 
and creates a ne guess """
   rightly_positioned, permutated = get_evaluation()
   if rightly_positioned == number_of_positions:
      return(current_colour_choices, (rightly_positioned, permutated))
    
   if not answer_ok((rightly_positioned, permutated)):
      print("Input Error: Sorry, the input makes no sense")
      return(current_colour_choices, (-1, permutated))
   guesses.append((current_colour_choices, (rightly_positioned, permutated)))
   view_guesses()
    
   current_colour_choices = create_new_guess() 
   show_current_guess(current_colour_choices)
   if not current_colour_choices:
      return(current_colour_choices, (-1, permutated))
   return(current_colour_choices, (rightly_positioned, permutated))


def check(p1, p2):
   """ check() calcualtes the number of bulls (blacks) and cows (whites)
of two permutations """
   blacks = 0
   whites = 0
   for i in range(len(p1)):
      if p1[i] == p2[i]:
          blacks += 1
      else:
         if p1[i] in p2:
             whites += 1
   return [blacks, whites] 

def create_new_guess():
   """ a new guess is created, which is consistent to the 
previous guesses """
   next_choice = next(permutation_iterator) 
   while inconsistent(next_choice, guesses):
      try:
         next_choice = next(permutation_iterator)
      except StopIteration:
         print("Error: Your answers were inconsistent!")
         return ()
   return next_choice


def new_evaluation_tk():
   global current_colour_choices
   res = new_evaluation(current_colour_choices)
   current_colour_choices = res[0]

def show_current_guess(new_guess):
    row = 1 
    Label(root, text="   New Guess:   ").grid(row=row, 
                                       column=0, 
                                       columnspan=4)
    row +=1
    col_count = 0
    for c in new_guess:
         print(c)
         l = Label(root, text="    ", bg=c)
         l.grid(row=row,column=col_count,  sticky=W, padx=2)
         col_count += 1

def view_guesses():
    row = 3
    Label(root, text="Old Guesses").grid(row=row, 
                                         column=0, 
                                         columnspan=4)
    Label(root, text="c&p").grid(row=row, 
                                 padx=5, 
                                 column=number_of_positions + 1)
    Label(root, text="p").grid(row=row, 
                               padx=5, 
                               column=number_of_positions + 2)
    # dummy label for distance:
    Label(root, text="         ").grid(row=row,  
                                       column=number_of_positions + 3)


    row += 1
    # vertical dummy label for distance:
    Label(root, text="             ").grid(row=row,  
                                       column=0,
                       columnspan=5)

    for guess in guesses:
      guessed_colours = guess[0]
      col_count = 0
      row += 1
      for c in guessed_colours:
         print(guessed_colours[col_count])
         l = Label(root, text="    ", bg=guessed_colours[col_count])
         l.grid(row=row,column=col_count,  sticky=W, padx=2)
         col_count += 1
      # evaluation:
      for i in (0,1):
        l = Label(root, text=str(guess[1][i]))
        l.grid(row=row,column=col_count + i + 1, padx=2)



if __name__ == "__main__":
   colours = ["red","green","blue","yellow","orange","pink"]
   guesses = []                
   number_of_positions = 4

   permutation_iterator = all_colours(colours, number_of_positions)
   current_colour_choices = next(permutation_iterator)

   new_guess = (current_colour_choices, (0,0) )

   row_offset = 1
   root = Tk()
   root.title("Mastermind")
   root["padx"] = 30
   root["pady"] = 20   

   entryLabel = Label(root)
   entryLabel["text"] = "Completely Correct:"
   entryLabel.grid(row=row_offset, 
                sticky=E,
                padx=5, 
                column=number_of_positions + 4)
   entryWidget_both = Entry(root)
   entryWidget_both["width"] = 5
   entryWidget_both.grid(row=row_offset, column=number_of_positions + 5)

   entryLabel = Label(root)
   entryLabel["text"] = "Wrong Position:"
   entryLabel.grid(row=row_offset+1, 
                sticky=E, 
                padx=5,
                column= number_of_positions + 4)
   entryWidget_only_colours = Entry(root)
   entryWidget_only_colours["width"] = 5
   entryWidget_only_colours.grid(row=row_offset+1, column=number_of_positions + 5)



   submit_button = Button(root, text="Submit", command=new_evaluation_tk)
   submit_button.grid(row=4,column=number_of_positions + 4)

   quit_button = Button(root, text="Quit", command=root.quit)
   quit_button.grid(row=4,column=number_of_positions + 5)
   show_current_guess(current_colour_choices)


   root.mainloop()

译者注: 不打算翻译这篇文章中提到的那篇进阶教程了...

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文章来源:https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000014290270

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